Category Archives: Publications

Understanding Candidates’ Learning Relationships with their Cooperating Teachers: A call to Reframe my Pedagogy

I am pleased to announce to publication of “Understanding Candidates’ Learning Relationships with their Cooperating Teachers: A call to Reframe my Pedagogy” in Studying Teacher Education. The abstract follows:

This self-study frames the influences of cooperating (or mentor) teachers on teacher candidates in my teacher education classroom as an action-at-a-distance on my pedagogy of teacher education; that is, a tacit set of influences and expectations that teacher candidates develop about my course before it even begins. Interviews with teacher candidates enabled me to develop two conceptual metaphors to think about the relationships candidates develop with cooperating teachers on practicum. The first, freedom with foundation, reflects the fact that teacher candidates hope to have considerable autonomy in their practicum placements while simultaneously having the support from their cooperating teacher to receive meaningful, regular, feedback. The second, power and performance, names the tensions teacher candidates feel in experiencing the practicum as a site of performance rather than as a site of learning. I offer some specific pedagogical ways in which I have responded to these issues before making a turn to self. I examined journal entries from my own experiences as a teacher candidate 20 years ago with a view to understanding the ways in which the two metaphors may have played a role in my own development as a teacher. This research compels me to attend explicitly to action-at-at-distance forces in my teacher education classroom, such as candidates’ relationship with cooperating teachers and my relationships with my former cooperating teachers.

Comprendiendo la relación de aprendizaje de los profesores en práctica con sus tutores en la escuela: La necesidad de re-enmarcar mi pedagogía

Este self-study se enfoca en las influencias de los profesores tutores de las escuelas sobre los profesores en práctica al interior de mis clases, como una acción a distancia sobre mi pedagogía para la formación docente; es decir, un conjunto tácito de influencias y expectativas que los profesores en formación desarrollan acerca de mi curso incluso antes de que éste comience. Las entrevistas con los profesores en formación me permitieron desarrollar dos metáforas conceptuales para pensar la relación entre estos estudiantes y sus profesores tutores de las escuelas en las que hacen sus prácticas. La primera, libertad con soporte, refleja el hecho de que los profesores en formación esperan tener un grado considerable de autonomía en sus experiencias de práctica, mientras que, al mismo tiempo, esperan también tener el apoyo de sus profesores tutores para recibir retroalimentación significativa y constante. La segunda, poder y desempeño, refiere a las tensiones que los estudiantes en práctica sienten al experimentar la práctica como un espacio para demostrar desempeños en lugar de como un espacio de aprendizaje. Ofrezco algunas formas pedagógicas en las que he respondido a estas problemáticas antes de volverme hacia mi propia experiencia. Examiné lo que escribí en mi diario cuando era docente en práctica hace 20 años, con la intención de ver los modos en que las dos metáforas pueden haber tenido un rol en mi propio desarrollo docente. Esta investigación me obliga a poner atención explícitamente en las fuerzas de acción a distancia en mi sala de clases, tales como la relación de los estudiantes en práctica con sus profesores tutores, y mi propia relación con aquellos que fueron mis tutores.

Keywords: Host teacher, teacher education, self-study, methods course, pedagogy of teacher education

Palabras clave: Profesor anfitrión, formación docente, self-study, curso de metodología, pedagogía de formación docente

Bullock, S. M. (2017). Understanding Candidates? Learning Relationships with their Cooperating Teachers: A call to Reframe my Pedagogy. Studying Teacher Education, 1–14. (online first)
50 free e-prints available:

‘Making’ as a catalyst for reflective practice

I am pleased to announce to publication of ‘Making’ as a catalyst for reflective practice, published in the journal Reflective Practice. The results present data from teacher candidates who participated in a several maker experiences in our Maker Pedagogy Lab (MPL).

The abstract:

Within the research and teaching program of maker pedagogy(TM), this study analyzes how teacher candidates construct knowledge about teaching and teaching with technology. The study applies an experiential-intuitive framework of reflective practice and takes cues from critical thinking to analyze the participants’ interactions in a maker pedagogy lab. Schön’s conception of reflection drove the data collection and analysis of participants who were asked to reflect on their experiences gained in the maker pedagogy lab. The researchers argue that the maker pedagogy lab provides participants with a way to understand their teaching practice. The results demonstrate that the maker projects enabled teacher candidates to engage in exploratory and hypothetical talk about how they are thinking about teaching and learning, particularly with technology. Furthermore, the researchers uncovered that teacher candidates’ prior knowledge and frames of reference affect their making experiences and their developing identities as science and technology teachers.

A special note and thank you to Andrea J. Sator, a current doctoral student in SFU’s Educational Technology and Learning Design program, who led the development of this article.

More information about Maker Pedagogy can be found here.

Citation information:

Sator, A. J., & Bullock, S. M. (2017). Making’ as a catalyst for reflective practice. Reflective Practice. Online first edition:

Digital technologies in teacher education: From mythologies to making

building-bridgesI am pleased to announce the publication of a new book edited by Clare Kosnik, Simone White, Clive Beck, Bethan Marshall, A. Lin Goodwin, and Jean Murray entitled Building bridges: Rethinking literacy teacher education in a digital era.

This book emerged from presentations made at a working conference in London in 2014. I was honoured to be a part of both the conference and this book. My own chapter provides a conceptual overview of some of the tensions and challenges of the concept of digital technologies in teacher education. It concludes with some ideas from my Maker Pedagogy project.

Sense Publishers always provides a free preview of the first chapter of books that it publishes, and that means anyone can download my chapter for free by clicking here.

My sincere thanks to the editorial team for their hard work and particularly to Clare Kosnik for inviting me to be a part of her research into digital technologies several years ago, even before this project started. You should check out her blog at:

Bullock, S. M. (2016). Digital technologies in teacher education: From mythologies to making. In C. Kosnik, S. White, C. Beck, B. Marshall, A. L. Goodwin, & J. Murray (Eds.), Building bridges: Rethinking literacy teacher education in a digital era (pp. 3–16). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Maker pedagogy and science teacher education

I am pleased to announced the first article from my  research program on maker pedagogy, which was just published in a special issue of the Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies. The piece is conceptual and considers some of the opportunities and challenges to adopting what we have defined as maker pedagogy in science education. Special thank you to my co-author, Andrea Sator, for her hard work on this project.

We are committed to publishing a portion of our work in open access format and are pleased to state that the article is freely available at:!v13-1-bullocksastor/cut

The abstract:

Making is a process that people engage in to design, create, and develop things that are of value and use to them personally or for their community. The recent popular (and sometimes commercial) Maker Movement is rooted in making and traces its lineage from a variety of historical precedents, including ancient traditions of arts and crafts fairs, tinkering and inventing using analog technologies, and hacking and programing with digital technologies. So-called “Maker Spaces” often function as co-ops that allow people to come together to build things, share expensive tools, and learn skills from one another. In this article, we will use the maker movement as a catalyst to reveal both some perennial challenges of and potential ways forward for curriculum studies of science and technology teacher education. In particular, we suggest that maker pedagogy, an approach to working with teacher candidates drawing from principles in the maker movement represents a potentially useful way forward in engaging teacher candidates in thinking about curriculum and working with students.

Citation Information:

Bullock, S. M., & Sator, A. J. (2015). Maker pedagogy and science teacher education. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 13(1), 61–87.

What is effective teacher professional development?

I am pleased to announce the publication of a new fact sheet by the Canadian Education Association entitled “What is effective teacher professional development?”

Teachers routinely engage in a variety of formal (i.e. district-directed) and informal (i.e. self-directed) professional development experiences. My co-author Andrea Sator and I reviewed recent literature on teachers’ professional development to come up with five research-informed recommendations for effective teacher professional development.

The post can be accessed here.

The one-page PDF can be accessed here.

Self-Study, Improvisational Theatre, and the Reflective Turn

I am pleased to announce the publication of my article “Self-Study, Improvisational Theatre, and the Reflective Turn: Using Video Data to Challenge My Pedagogy of Science Teacher Education” in the journal Educational Research for Social Change.

The abstract:

This article analyses a small section of data of a year-
long project in which I used a video camera to record nearly all the meetings of my physics curriculum methods courses in a pre-service teacher education programme. After briefly setting the context for the study, the article presents a lengthy selection of data from a critical incident in my teacher education classroom in a script-like form. The data are then analysed from three different theoretical lenses — the lens of the viewer, the researcher, and the teacher educator — as a way of examining how each lens can inform different aspects of myself. The article concludes with a discussion of the reflexive effects of both viewing video recordings of my classes and engaging with theatre literature on my pedagogy of science teacher education.

The article is is available freely, under a creative commons licence, by registering with the journal. Click here for the issue in which my article appears.